Universe Topic Year 7/8 Lesson + Resource Packet

Universe Topic Year 7/8 Lesson + Resource Packet

A ready made lesson packet on the topic of the Universe with adapting dates and comments in the notes section to guide non-specialists. JUST DOWNLOAD AND TEACH. Included a short test to be taken at the end of Lesson 5, can be teacher assessed or class assessed. Intended to be delivers to year 7 or low year 8 classes. Could be used for very advanced Year 6. Lessons are fully made with resources embedded or attached separately. Most with answers included, a couple of worksheets are intended to be answered by the class in a plenary. Great for non-specialist Teachers!! This took me a lot of time… £2.50 seems fair.
MrRyan1
Science of Sound: BUNDLE for 1st grade unit and 4th grade unit

Science of Sound: BUNDLE for 1st grade unit and 4th grade unit

This is a bundle of two units on the Science of Sound Energy. One targeted for 1st grade and the other targeted for 4th grade. This bundle includes the following products: • Science of Sound - 1st Grade Unit • Science of Sound - 4th Grade Unit ========================================================== DESCRIPTION FOR 1st GRADE UNIT This is an editable interdisciplinary unit on the Science of Sound Energy for 1st grade music and science. This lesson and accompanying PowerPoint will provide you all you need to teach a fun, engaging science of sound unit. This unit was written to meet the 1st grade science of sound curriculum in Georgia, but can be modified to meet the needs of other grade levels. This packet is wonderful for collaboration between music teachers and classroom teachers! In this packet you will receive: • Detailed lesson plans for the Science of Sound ready to print, yet fully editable for your needs (Microsoft Word). • Engaging PowerPoint to lead your students through learning about the science of sound. There is a partially editable (text is editable) version and a version that is pre-formatted and ready to show right away. • Interactive quizzes; take as a class or check the answers on the accompanying assessment papers. • Partner Sound Card Game - directions included. • Listening Walk Worksheet to go with the Listening Walk book. • Differentiated Sound Sorts (with both Soft and Quiet Terms) - Use as a center or as an assessment. (plus answer keys) — Sound Sort, Cut and Paste, High and Low — Sound Sort, Cut and Paste, Loud and Soft — Sound Sort, Cut and Paste, Emergency vs. Non-Emergency — Sound Sort, Color or Circle the correct picture, High and Low — Sound Sort, Color or Circle the correct picture, Loud and Soft — Sound Sort, Color or Circle the correct picture, Emergency — Sound Label, Write in the correct label, Loud and Soft. — Sound Label, Write in the correct label, High and Low. • Guide for completing six experiments for the Science of Sound • Font download links to keep formatting attractive and allow the PowerPoint presentation to be partially editable. (Note: a pre-formatted version is included as well). The ready to print lesson plan and accompanying presentation cover the following topics: • What is vibration? • How do instruments vibrate? • How does our voice vibrate? • Quick look at the families of instruments. • Make vibrations from paper. • Introductory look at sound waves - volume (amplitude) • Introductory look at sound waves - pitch (frequency) • Original piggy back song to remember pitch vs volume. • Comparison of Emergency sounds and what is an Emergency sound? • EXPERIMENT - String Telephone • EXPERIMENT - Box Guitar • EXPERIMENT - Tuning Fork Fun • EXPERIMENT - Jumping Rice • EXPERIMENT - Ruler Vibrations • EXPERIMENT - Hanger Bells Additional materials needed to complete the lesson as written • The Listening Walk by Paul Showers. ISBN 9780064433228 • Internet access to view videos online (safeshare links provided!) • Samples of each family of instruments (optional) • Streamer wands • Printer • Storage boxes for materials • Glasses and food coloring. • Materials for experiments: ---- tuning forks ---- block of wood ---- bowl of water ---- ping pong balls ---- string (I used butcher’s string) ---- wire hangers ---- paper ---- cheap plastic rulers ---- plastic box or table ---- red rice ---- hand drums or tambourine ---- rhythm sticks or cut broom stick ---- top of a plastic box ---- plastic cups (I used mini solo cups) ---- rubber bands in two sizes ---- small plastic bins PowerPoint Compatibility Note: The interactive features have been tested in PowerPoint for Mac 2011 and 2016; also on PC PowerPoint 360. The interactive features do NOT work on PowerPoint for Mac 2008. Other versions have not been tested at this time. The interactive features will NOT work if opened in Keynote or as a PDF. Standards The detailed, editable lesson plans were written ready to print for the general music room, but could easily be adapted to the general education science room with a quick switching of standards. Currently the Georgia GPS music standards are marked; the National Music Standards and Common Core Arts Standards are included and can be swapped with a simple copy and paste. This packet also meets the NGSS science standards for first grade (sound). ========================================================== DESCRIPTION FOR 4th GRADE UNIT This is an editable interdisciplinary unit on Acoustics: Science of Sound Energy. This lesson and accompanying PowerPoint will provide you all you need to teach a fun, engaging science of sound unit (Acoustics). This unit was written to meet the 4th grade science of sound curriculum in Georgia, but can be modified to meet the needs of other grade levels. This packet is wonderful for collaboration between music teachers and classroom teachers! In this packet you will receive: • Detailed lesson plans for the Science of Sound ready to print for tomorrow’s lesson. • Engaging PowerPoint to lead your students through learning about the science of sound. • Interactive quizzes; take as a class or check the answers on the accompanying assessment papers. • Assessment papers to be used as a pre and post test. (Promethean ActivOffice integration available for those using Powerpoint PC 2007 or 2010 but NOT required). • Guide for students in completing two experiments for the Science of Sound • Guide for students to use the iPad “Sound Uncovered” (only available for iPad). The lesson can be taught without this extension activity, but I included it for your students’ enjoyment. NOTE CURRENTLY THIS APP DOES NOT WORK WITH iOS11 • Alternative mini-lessons for parts of Chrome Music Labs (Highly recommend “Sound Uncovered” instead of this.) • Included font for installation to keep formatting attractive and allow the PowerPoint presentation to be editable. (Note: the PDFs are editable with a PDF presentation software such as Adobe Acrobat). The ready to print lesson plan and accompanying presentation cover the following topics: • What is vibration? • How do instruments vibrate? • How does our voice vibrate? • Basics of sound waves. • Detailed look at sound waves - volume (amplitude) • Detailed look at sound waves - pitch (frequency) • Detailed look at sound waves - timber (shape of wave). • Comparison of sounds in hertz. • Comparison of sounds in decibels. • Factors affecting pitch (length, diameter, tension, and density). • How sound moves through different types of matter (solids, liquids, and gas). • Individual or group work exploring sound phenomenon with the app “Sound Uncovered” and/or “Chrome Music Labs” • EXPERIMENT - What is sound? Vibrations! Make a Straw Kazoo/Double Reed! • EXPERIMENT - How does matter affect sound? Tap-a-Bag! Additional materials needed to complete the lesson as written • Internet access to view videos online (safeshare links provided!) • Access to BrainPop is most desirable. ( I have provided Alternative video links). • (Optional) iPad/iPhone app: dB Volume Meter (Alternative Android app link provided) • (Optional) iPad/iPhone app: Tone generator (Alternative web app and Android app link provided). • (Optional) iPad/iPhone app: Sound Uncovered - Exploratorium(Unfortunately no alternative android app is available). Standards The detailed, editable lesson plans were written ready to print for the general music room, but could easily be adapted to the general education science room with a quick switching of standards. Currently the Georgia GPS music standards are marked; the National Music Standards and Common Core Arts Standards are included and can be swapped with a simple copy and paste.
pitchpublications
Forces: Building a Rocket

Forces: Building a Rocket

Included in this resource is… Bell Task Clear Aims & Objectives YouTube Clip Learning Mat Stretch and Challenge activities. Interactive Plenary Please read the notes in the section below the PPT slide for teacher tips and notes. If you like this resource, please give us a review and we will send you a free resource of your choice of the same value. We hope that you enjoy this resource! We would love your feedback, if you like what you see, please follow us: on Tes TeachElite’s Shop click the’Follow this Author button’ . We will keep you updated on any sales we throw or FREEBIES we upload. You can find us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/TeachEliteRE and Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TeachElite/
TeachElite
Forces: Forces KS2

Forces: Forces KS2

14 hours of content. Fun, engaging and created by a trainde Science Specialist. lesson order: Gravity Forces Measuring Force Balanced unbalanced Friction Friction Practicals Simple Machines Building a Rocket Please read the notes in the section below the PPT slide for teacher tips and notes. If you like this resource, please give us a review and we will send you a free resource of your choice of the same value. We hope that you enjoy this resource! We would love your feedback, if you like what you see, please follow us: on Tes TeachElite’s Shop click the’Follow this Author button’ . We will keep you updated on any sales we throw or FREEBIES we upload. You can find us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/TeachEliteRE and Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TeachElite/
TeachElite
Forces: Simple Machines - Forces

Forces: Simple Machines - Forces

Included in this Simple Machines resource is… Bell Task Clear Aims & Objectives YouTube Clips Learning Mat Doodle Notes Stretch and Challenge activities. Interactive Plenary Please read the notes in the section below the PPT slide for teacher tips and notes. If you like this resource, please give us a review and we will send you a free resource of your choice of the same value. We hope that you enjoy this resource! We would love your feedback, if you like what you see, please follow us: on Tes TeachElite’s Shop click the’Follow this Author button’ . We will keep you updated on any sales we throw or FREEBIES we upload. You can find us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/TeachEliteRE and Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TeachElite/
TeachElite
Friction: Friction Practicals

Friction: Friction Practicals

This is the second in our Friction series and contains 3 different practicals on the different types of friction. Included in this pack is: Bell Task Clear Aims & Objectives Three Fun Practical Investigations Peer Assessment Please read the notes in the section below the PPT slide for teacher tips and notes. If you like this resource, please give us a review and we will send you a free resource of your choice of the same value. We hope that you enjoy this resource! We would love your feedback, if you like what you see, please follow us: on Tes TeachElite’s Shop click the’Follow this Author button’ . We will keep you updated on any sales we throw or FREEBIES we upload. You can find us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/TeachEliteRE and Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TeachElite/
TeachElite
Forces: Balanced and Unbalanced Force  KS2

Forces: Balanced and Unbalanced Force KS2

Forces: Balanced and Unbalanced Force This is a fully resourced lesson introducing pupils to balanced and unbalanced forces. Activities include: Starter Task: A Thinking Skills questions- on movement of objects. Task 1: Pupils are introduced to balanced and unbalanced forces by watching a short YouTube video clip and can make notes on this. Task 2: Pupils then complete an activity on different objects and determine the direction of movement on the object. Task 3: Pupils will swap their books and peer assess their answers. Task 4: Pupils will watch an animation and be asked to take part in a class discussion on this. Task 5: Pupils will be required to complete a flow chart on the animation. Exit task/Plenary: our interactive Starter and Plenary Prompt Selector that is worth £3. In our lessons, all key words are added to our KS3 Science - Scientific Vocabulary A-Z . If you like this resource, please give us a review and we will send you a free resource of your choice of the same value. We hope that you enjoy this resource! We would love your feedback, if you like what you see, please follow us: on Tes TeachElite’s Shop click the’Follow this Author button’ . We will keep you updated on any sales we throw or FREEBIES we upload. You can find us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/TeachEliteRE and Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TeachElite/
TeachElite
Electricity assessment

Electricity assessment

Assessment for the Year 4 ks 2 science electricity topic. Includes pictorial questions, sorting questions, written answers and diagrams.
rexinstead
Sound assessment

Sound assessment

Assessment for the sound year 4 science topic. Covers the ear, sound waves, pitch, volume and sound proofing. Images to support less able, includes diagrams, filing in the gap activities, and written answers
rexinstead
Materials: KS1/2 Essentials Pack

Materials: KS1/2 Essentials Pack

A bundle of resources that includes essentials for teaching materials in primary schools. It includes hooks, questioning and is focused on the scientific methodology (fair testing, observation, comparative testing ect.)
AbbyMSimpson
Materials: Bend, Twist, Stretch and Squash

Materials: Bend, Twist, Stretch and Squash

LO: To find out how solid shapes can be changed. Using the hook of a pirate ship, children aim to build their own but what material should they use? Children fill in the differentiated worksheet to find out which material they should use for their very own pirate ship.
AbbyMSimpson
Sunflower Lifecycle Sequencer (Simple) - KS2 Literacy

Sunflower Lifecycle Sequencer (Simple) - KS2 Literacy

KS2 Literacy - Sunflower Lifecycle Sequencer (Simple) This is an interactive activity for pupils to sequence the stages of a sunflower’s lifecycle. This is a simple version containing four steps that need to be sequenced. Each picture has a written description with accompanying audio. Pupils are tasked with dragging the pictures into the cyclical diagram and placing them in the right order. Click the winder to rotate the images and press the play button to see and hear the sequence. This is a great resource to use as an introduction to sequencing and explanation writing.
Tes_elements
Sunflower Lifecycle Interactive Explanation Book - KS2 Literacy

Sunflower Lifecycle Interactive Explanation Book - KS2 Literacy

KS2 Literacy - Sunflower Lifecycle Interactive Explanation Book This interactive book has bright, colourful illustrations and simple text to explain the lifecycle of a sunflower. For audio, just press the speaker icon to have the text read aloud. This is a great resource to use as the basis for a writing task. For example, ask pupils to take short notes and capture the vital information from the text. Students can then create their own explanation books using their own drawings.
Tes_elements
Sunflower Lifecycle Sequencer (Complex) - KS2 Literacy

Sunflower Lifecycle Sequencer (Complex) - KS2 Literacy

KS2 Literacy - Sunflower Lifecycle Sequencer (Complex) This is an interactive activity for pupils to sequence the stages of a sunflower’s lifecycle. This is a complex version containing six steps that need to be sequenced. Each picture has a written description with accompanying audio. Pupils are tasked with dragging the pictures into the cyclical diagram and placing them in the right order. Click the winder to rotate the images and press the play button to see and hear the sequence. This is a great resource to use as an introduction to sequencing and explanation writing.
Tes_elements
Make Your Own Information Poster: Frog Life Cycle - Interactive Activity - KS2 Literacy

Make Your Own Information Poster: Frog Life Cycle - Interactive Activity - KS2 Literacy

KS2 Literacy - Make Your Own Information Poster: Frog Life Cycle - Interactive Activity Create your own information poster by selecting headings, footers, pictures and descriptive texts. The different page layout options are a useful feature for pupil differentiation, as higher ability pupils can be encouraged to extend the length of their work. This is a great activity for students to work on independently to practise writing informatively.
Tes_elements
Frog Lifecycle Sequencer (Simple) - KS2 Literacy

Frog Lifecycle Sequencer (Simple) - KS2 Literacy

KS2 Literacy - Frog Lifecycle Sequencer (Simple) This is an interactive activity for pupils to sequence the stages of a frog’s lifecycle. This is a simple version containing four steps that need to be sequenced. Each picture has a written description with accompanying audio. Pupils are tasked with dragging the pictures into the cyclical diagram and placing them in the right order. Click the winder to rotate the images and press the play button to see and hear the sequence. This is a great resource to use as an introduction to sequencing and explanation writing.
Tes_elements
Make Your Own Information Poster: A Hedgehog's Year - Interactive Activity - KS2 Literacy

Make Your Own Information Poster: A Hedgehog's Year - Interactive Activity - KS2 Literacy

KS2 Literacy - Make Your Own Information Poster: A Hedgehog’s Year - Interactive Activity Create your own information poster by selecting headings, footers, pictures and descriptive texts. The different page layout options are a useful feature for pupil differentiation, as higher ability pupils can be encouraged to extend the length of their work. This is a great activity for students to work on independently to practise writing informatively.
Tes_elements
Frog Lifecycle Interactive Explanation Book - KS2 Literacy

Frog Lifecycle Interactive Explanation Book - KS2 Literacy

KS2 Literacy - Frog Lifecycle Interactive Explanation Book This interactive book has bright, colourful illustrations and simple text to explain the lifecycle of a frog. For audio, just press the speaker icon to have the text read aloud. This is a great resource to use as the basis for a writing task. For example, ask pupils to take short notes and capture the vital information from the text. Students can then create their own explanation books using their own drawings.
Tes_elements
A Hedgehog's Year Lifecycle Sequencer (Simple) - KS2 Literacy

A Hedgehog's Year Lifecycle Sequencer (Simple) - KS2 Literacy

KS2 Literacy - Hedgehog Lifecycle Sequencer (Simple) This is an interactive activity for pupils to sequence the stages of hedgehog’s lifecycle. This is a simple version containing four steps that need to be sequenced. Each picture has a written description with accompanying audio. Pupils are tasked with dragging the pictures into the cyclical diagram and placing them in the right order. Click the winder to rotate the images and press the play button to see and hear the sequence. This is a great resource to use as an introduction to sequencing and explanation writing.
Tes_elements
A Hedgehog's Year Lifecycle Sequencer (Complex) - KS2 Literacy

A Hedgehog's Year Lifecycle Sequencer (Complex) - KS2 Literacy

KS2 Literacy - Hedgehog Lifecycle Sequencer (Complex) This is an interactive activity for pupils to sequence the stages of hedgehog’s lifecycle. This is a complex version containing six steps that need to be sequenced. Each picture has a written description with accompanying audio. Pupils are tasked with dragging the pictures into the cyclical diagram and placing them in the right order. Click the winder to rotate the images and press the play button to see and hear the sequence. This is a great resource to use as an introduction to sequencing and explanation writing.
Tes_elements
Butterfly Lifecycle Storyboard Worksheet - KS2 Literacy

Butterfly Lifecycle Storyboard Worksheet - KS2 Literacy

KS2 Literacy - Butterfly Lifecycle Storyboard Worksheet This worksheet has a sequenced storyboard of images for the lifecycle of a butterfly, including blank boxes to input text. Pupils are tasked with writing the explanation to each stage of the sequence, using the images as prompts. Encourage pupils to add key vocabulary and explore sentence structure, as they tell the lifecycle in their own words. This is a great exercise for pupils to work on independently or in small groups. This can also form the basis for writing a longer piece of text.
Tes_elements
A Hedgehog's Year Lifecycle Storyboard Worksheet - KS2 Literacy

A Hedgehog's Year Lifecycle Storyboard Worksheet - KS2 Literacy

KS2 Literacy - Hedgehog Lifecycle Storyboard Worksheet This worksheet has a sequenced storyboard of images for the lifecycle of a hedgehog, including blank boxes to input text. Pupils are tasked with writing the explanation to each stage of the sequence, using the images as prompts. Encourage pupils to add key vocabulary and explore sentence structure, as they tell the lifecycle in their own words. This is a great exercise for pupils to work on independently or in small groups. This can also form the basis for writing a longer piece of text.
Tes_elements
Interactive Sequencer - Growing a Bean - KS1 Literacy

Interactive Sequencer - Growing a Bean - KS1 Literacy

KS1 Literacy - Interactive Sequencer - Growing a Bean This is an interactive sequencing activity. Pupils begin by reviewing the instructions to grow a bean, and are then tasked with dragging them into the timeline in the correct order. The sequence can be played back to check if it sounds and looks right. Students can then add their own captions to the images, providing more detail and description. This is a great resource for pupils to explore independently or in small groups.
Tes_elements
Information Worksheet - Vehicles - KS1/KS2 Literacy

Information Worksheet - Vehicles - KS1/KS2 Literacy

KS1/KS2 Literacy - Vehicles - Information Worksheet This worksheet contains images of different vehicles with a blank space underneath for pupils to record the information they know about each vehicle. This is a great resource to use as the basis for a writing task. Pupils can expand on the notes they have taken for vehicles by developing it into an information booklet.
Tes_elements
Make Your Own Information Poster: Butterfly Life Cycle - Interactive Activity - KS2 Literacy

Make Your Own Information Poster: Butterfly Life Cycle - Interactive Activity - KS2 Literacy

KS2 Literacy - Make Your Own Information Poster: Butterfly Life Cycle - Interactive Activity Create your own information poster by selecting headings, footers, pictures and descriptive texts. The different page layout options are a useful feature for pupil differentiation, as higher ability pupils can be encouraged to extend the length of their work. This is a great activity for students to work on independently to practise writing informatively.
Tes_elements
Butterfly Lifecycle Interactive Explanation Book - KS2 Literacy

Butterfly Lifecycle Interactive Explanation Book - KS2 Literacy

KS2 Literacy - Butterfly Lifecycle Interactive Explanation Book This interactive book has bright, colourful illustrations and simple text to explain the lifecycle of a butterfly. For audio, just press the speaker icon to have the text read aloud. This is a great resource to use as the basis for a writing task. For example, ask pupils to take short notes and capture the vital information from the text. Students can then create their own explanation books using their own drawings.
Tes_elements
Butterfly Lifecycle Sequencer (Simple) - KS2 Literacy

Butterfly Lifecycle Sequencer (Simple) - KS2 Literacy

KS2 Literacy - Butterfly Lifecycle Sequencer (Simple) This is an interactive activity for pupils to sequence the stages of a butterfly’s lifecycle. This is a simple version containing four steps that need to be sequenced. Each picture has a written description with accompanying audio. Pupils are tasked with dragging the pictures into the cyclical diagram and placing them in the right order. Click the winder to rotate the images and press the play button to see and hear the sequence. This is a great resource to use as an introduction to sequencing and explanation writing.
Tes_elements
Information Worksheet - Planets and Space - KS1/KS2 Literacy

Information Worksheet - Planets and Space - KS1/KS2 Literacy

KS1/KS2 Literacy - Planets and Space - Information Worksheet This worksheet contains images of different planets and space with a blank space underneath for pupils to record the information they know about each. This is a great resource to use as the basis for a writing task. Pupils can expand on the notes they have taken for planets and space by developing it into an information booklet.
Tes_elements
Information Worksheet - Plants and Trees - KS1/KS2 Literacy

Information Worksheet - Plants and Trees - KS1/KS2 Literacy

KS1/KS2 Literacy - Plants and Trees - Information Worksheet This worksheet contains images of different plants and trees with a blank space underneath for pupils to record the information they know about each plant. This is a great resource to use as the basis for a writing task. Pupils can expand on the notes they have taken for plants by developing it into an information booklet.
Tes_elements
Information Worksheet - Minibeasts, Reptiles and Amphibians - KS1/KS2 Literacy

Information Worksheet - Minibeasts, Reptiles and Amphibians - KS1/KS2 Literacy

KS1/KS2 Literacy - Minibeasts, Reptiles and Amphibians - Information Worksheet This worksheet contains images of different minibeasts, reptiles and amphibians with a blank space underneath for pupils to record the information they know about each animal. This is a great resource to use as the basis for a writing task. Pupils can expand on the notes they have taken for animals by developing it into an information booklet.
Tes_elements
A Hedgehog's Year Lifecycle Interactive Explanation Book - KS2 Literacy

A Hedgehog's Year Lifecycle Interactive Explanation Book - KS2 Literacy

KS2 Literacy - Hedgehog Lifecycle Interactive Explanation Book This interactive book has bright, colourful illustrations and simple text to explain the lifecycle of a hedgehog. For audio, just press the speaker icon to have the text read aloud. This is a great resource to use as the basis for a writing task. For example, ask pupils to take short notes and capture the vital information from the text. Students can then create their own explanation books using their own drawings.
Tes_elements
Information Worksheet - Mammals and Birds - KS1/KS2 Literacy

Information Worksheet - Mammals and Birds - KS1/KS2 Literacy

KS1/KS2 Literacy - Mammals and Birds - Information Worksheet This worksheet contains images of different mammals and birds with a blank space underneath for pupils to record the information they know about each animal. This is a great resource to use as the basis for a writing task. Pupils can expand on the notes they have taken for animals by developing it into an information booklet.
Tes_elements
Interactive Information Website - Vehicles - KS2 Literacy

Interactive Information Website - Vehicles - KS2 Literacy

KS2 Literacy - Vehicles Interactive Information Website This mock website provides an alternative way of presenting information.It allows pupils to search for information safely within a carefully written and closed environment. Pupils use the links to navigate around and find key items of information or enter their own search criteria. This is a great resource to use for the basis of writing an information booklet or text. Students can explore the website independently or in groups, making notes on the key information throughout.
Tes_elements
Make Your Own Information Book: Vehicles - Interactive Activity - KS2 Literacy

Make Your Own Information Book: Vehicles - Interactive Activity - KS2 Literacy

KS2 Literacy - Make Your Own Information Book: Vehicles - Interactive Activity Create your own information book by selecting headings, footers, pictures and descriptive texts. The different page layout options are a useful feature for pupil differentiation, as higher ability pupils can be encouraged to extend the length of their work. This is a great activity for students to work on independently to practise writing informatively.
Tes_elements